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Wang, Youning, Liu, Qi, Wang, Yang.  2021.  An Improved Bi-LSTM Model for Entity Extraction of Intellectual Property Using Complex Graph. 2021 IEEE 23rd Int Conf on High Performance Computing & Communications; 7th Int Conf on Data Science & Systems; 19th Int Conf on Smart City; 7th Int Conf on Dependability in Sensor, Cloud & Big Data Systems & Application (HPCC/DSS/SmartCity/DependSys). :1920–1925.
The protection of Intellectual Property (IP) has gradually increased in recent years. Traditional intellectual property management service has lower efficiency for such scale of data. Considering that the maturity of deep learning models has led to the development of knowledge graphs. Relevant researchers have investigated the application of knowledge graphs in different domains, such as medical services, social media, etc. However, few studies of knowledge graphs have been undertaken in the domain of intellectual property. In this paper, we introduce the process of building a domain knowledge graph and start from data preparation to conduct the research of named entity recognition.
Weaver, Gabriel A..  2021.  A Data Processing Pipeline For Cyber-Physical Risk Assessments Of Municipal Supply Chains. 2021 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC). :1—12.
Smart city technologies promise reduced congestion by optimizing transportation movements. Increased connectivity, however, may increase the attack surface of a municipality's critical functions. Increased supply chain attacks (up nearly 80 % in 2019) and municipal ransomware attacks (up 60 % in 2019) motivate the need for holistic approaches to risk assessment. Therefore, we present a methodology to quantify the degree to which supply-chain movements may be observed or disrupted via compromised smart-city devices. Our data-processing pipeline uses publicly available datasets to model intermodal commodity flows within and surrounding a municipality. Using a hierarchy tree to adaptively sample spatial networks within geographic regions of interest, we bridge the gap between grid- and network-based risk assessment frameworks. Results based on fieldwork for the Jack Voltaic exercises sponsored by the Army Cyber Institute demonstrate our approach on intermodal movements through Charleston, SC and San Diego, CA.
Pirker, Dominic, Fischer, Thomas, Witschnig, Harald, Steger, Christian.  2021.  velink - A Blockchain-based Shared Mobility Platform for Private and Commercial Vehicles utilizing ERC-721 Tokens. 2021 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy (CSP). :62—67.
Transportation of people and goods is important and crucial in the context of smart cities. The trend in regard of people's mobility is moving from privately owned vehicles towards shared mobility. This trend is even stronger in urban areas, where space for parking is limited, and the mobility is supported by the public transport system, which lowers the need for private vehicles. Several challenges and barriers of currently available solutions retard a massive growth of this mobility option, such as the trust problem, data monopolism, or intermediary costs. Decentralizing mobility management is a promising approach to solve the current problems of the mobility market, allowing to move towards a more usable internet of mobility and smart transportation. Leveraging blockchain technology allows to cut intermediary costs, by utilizing smart contracts. Important in this ecosystem is the proof of identity of participants in the blockchain network. To proof the possession of the claimed identity, the private key corresponding to the wallet address is utilized, and therefore essential to protect. In this paper, a blockchain-based shared mobility platform is proposed and a proof-of-concept is shown. First, current problems and state-of-the-art systems are analyzed. Then, a decentralized concept is built based on ERC-721 tokens, implemented in a smart contract, and augmented with a Hardware Security Module (HSM) to protect the confidential key material. Finally, the system is evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art solutions.
Kaur, Amanpreet, Singh, Gurpreet.  2021.  Encryption Algorithms based on Security in IoT (Internet of Things). 2021 6th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :482–486.
The Internet is evolving everywhere and expanding its entity globally. The IoT(Internet of things) is a new and interesting concept introduced in this world of internet. Generally it is interconnected computing device which can be embedded in our daily routine objects through which we can send and receive data. It is beyond connecting computers and laptops only although it can connect billion of devices. It can be described as reliable method of communication that also make use of other technologies like wireless sensor, QR code etc. IoT (Internet of Things) is making everything smart with use of technology like smart homes, smart cities, smart watches. In this chapter, we will study the security algorithms in IoT (Internet of Things) which can be achieved with encryption process. In the world of IoT, data is more vulnerable to threats. So as to protect data integrity, data confidentiality, we have Light weight Encryption Algorithms like symmetric key cryptography and public key cryptography for secure IoT (Internet of Things) named as Secure IoT. Because it is not convenient to use full encryption algorithms that require large memory size, large program code and larger execution time. Light weight algorithms meet all resource constraints of small memory size, less execution time and efficiency. The algorithms can be measured in terms of key size, no of blocks and algorithm structure, chip size and energy consumption. Light Weight Techniques provides security to smart object networks and also provides efficiency. In Symmetric Key Cryptography, two parties can have identical keys but has some practical difficulty. Public Key Cryptography uses both private and public key which are related to each other. Public key is known to everyone while private key is kept secret. Public Key cryptography method is based on mathematical problems. So, to implement this method, one should have a great expertise.
Wu, Kaijun, Li, Wenqin.  2021.  Multi image cross hybrid encryption method based on combined chaotic system. 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS). :681—685.
In order to improve the security and encryption efficiency of multi image cross hybrid encryption, a multi image cross hybrid encryption method based on combined chaotic system is proposed. On the basis of chaos theory, the characteristics of Logistic chaotic system and Lorenz chaotic system are analyzed, and Logistic chaotic system and Lorenz chaotic system are combined to form a combined chaotic system. In order to improve the security of multi image encryption, the plaintext image is preprocessed before encryption. The preprocessing process is embedding random number sequence in the plaintext image. Based on the random number embedded image, the combined chaotic system is applied to the multi image cross chaotic encryption method. Experimental results show that the proposed method has high encryption security and high encryption efficiency.
Dankwa, Stephen, Yang, Lu.  2021.  An Optimal and Lightweight Convolutional Neural Network for Performance Evaluation in Smart Cities based on CAPTCHA Solving. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB). :1—6.
Multimedia Internet of Things (IoT) devices, especially, the smartphones are embedded with sensors including Global Positioning System (GPS), barometer, microphone, accelerometer, etc. These sensors working together, present a fairly complete picture of the citizens' daily activities, with implications for their privacy. With the internet, Citizens in Smart Cities are able to perform their daily life activities online with their connected electronic devices. But, unfortunately, computer hackers tend to write automated malicious applications to attack websites on which these citizens perform their activities. These security threats sometime put their private information at risk. In order to prevent these security threats on websites, Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHAs) are generated, as a form of security mechanism to protect the citizens' private information. But with the advancement of deep learning, text-based CAPTCHAs can sometimes be vulnerable. As a result, it is essential to conduct performance evaluation on the CAPTCHAs that are generated before they are deployed on multimedia web applications. Therefore, this work proposed an optimal and light-weight Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to solve both numerical and alpha-numerical complex text-based CAPTCHAs simultaneously. The accuracy of the proposed CNN model has been accelerated based on Cyclical Learning Rates (CLRs) policy. The proposed CLR-CNN model achieved a high accuracy to solve both numerical and alpha-numerical text-based CAPTCHAs of 99.87% and 99.66%, respectively. In real-time, we observed that the speed of the model has increased, the model is lightweight, stable, and flexible as compared to other CAPTCHA solving techniques. The result of this current work will increase awareness and will assist multimedia security Researchers to continue and develop more robust text-based CAPTCHAs with their security mechanisms capable of protecting the private information of citizens in Smart Cities.
Su, Liyilei, Fu, Xianjun, Hu, Qingmao.  2021.  A convolutional generative adversarial framework for data augmentation based on a robust optimal transport metric. 2021 IEEE 23rd Int Conf on High Performance Computing & Communications; 7th Int Conf on Data Science & Systems; 19th Int Conf on Smart City; 7th Int Conf on Dependability in Sensor, Cloud & Big Data Systems & Application (HPCC/DSS/SmartCity/DependSys). :1155–1162.
Enhancement of the vanilla generative adversarial network (GAN) to preserve data variability in the presence of real world noise is of paramount significance in deep learning. In this study, we proposed a new distance metric of cosine distance in the framework of optimal transport (OT), and presented and validated a convolutional neural network (CNN) based GAN framework. In comparison with state-of-the-art methods based on Graphics Processing Units (GPU), the proposed framework could maintain the data diversity and quality best in terms of inception score (IS), Fréchet inception distance (FID) and enhancing the classification network of bone age, and is robust to noise degradation. The proposed framework is independent of hardware and thus could also be extended to more advanced hardware such as specialized Tensor Processing Units (TPU), and could be a potential built-in component of a general deep learning networks for such applications as image classification, segmentation, registration, and object detection.
Zhang, Guangxin, Zhao, Liying, Qiao, Dongliang, Shang, Ziwen, Huang, Rui.  2021.  Design of transmission line safety early warning system based on big data variable analysis. 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS). :90–93.
In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of transmission line safety early warning, a transmission line safety early warning system based on big data variable analysis is proposed. Firstly, the overall architecture of the system is designed under the B / S architecture. Secondly, in the hardware part of the system, the security data real-time monitoring module, data transmission module and security warning module are designed to meet the functional requirements of the system. Finally, in the system software design part, the big data variable analysis method is used to calculate the hidden danger of transmission line safety, so as to improve the effectiveness of transmission safety early warning. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional security early warning system, the early warning accuracy and efficiency of the designed system are significantly improved, which can ensure the safe operation of the transmission line.
Ye, YuGuang.  2021.  Research on the Security Defense Strategy of Smart City's Substitution Computer Network in Big Data. 2021 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1428–1431.
With the rapid development of the information technology era, the era of big data has also arrived. While computer networks are promoting the prosperity and development of society, their applications have become more extensive and in-depth. Smart city video surveillance systems have entered an era of networked surveillance and business integration. The problems are also endless. This article discusses computer network security in the era of big data, hoping to help strengthen the security of computer networks in our country. This paper studies the computer network security prevention strategies of smart cities in the era of big data.
Lu, Shouqin, Li, Xiangxue.  2021.  Lightweight Grouping-Proof for Post-Quantum RFID Security. 2021 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/IOP/SCI). :49–58.
A grouping-proof protocol aims to generate an evidence that two or more RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags in a group are coexistent, which has been widely deployed in practical scenarios, such as healthcare, supply-chain management, and so on. However, existing grouping-proof protocols have many issues in security and efficiency, either incompatible with EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 (C1G2) standard, or vulnerable to different attacks. In this paper, we propose a lightweight grouping-proof protocol which only utilizes bitwise operations (AND, XOR) and 128-bit pseudorandom number generator (PRNG). 2-round interactions between the reader and the tags allow them to cooperate on fast authentication in parallel mode where the reader broadcasts its round messages rather than hang on for the prior tag and then fabricate apposite output for the next tag consecutively. Our design enables the reader to aggregate the first round proofs (to bind the membership of tags in the same group) generated by the tags to an authenticator of constant size (independent of the number of tags) that can then be used by the tags to generate the second round proofs (and that will be validated by the verifier). Formal security (i.e., PPT adversary cannot counterfeit valid grouping-proof that can be accepted by any verifier) of the proposed protocol relies on the hardness of the learning parity with noise (LPN) problem, which can resist against quantum computing attacks. Other appealing features (e.g., robustness, anonymity, etc.) are also inspected. Performance evaluation shows its applicability to C1G2 RFID.
Zeng, Feng.  2021.  Secure ADS-B protection scheme supporting query. 2021 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/IOP/SCI). :513–518.
Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS- B) records provide an important basis and evidence for future route planning and accountability. However, due to the lack of effective support for the integrity and confidentiality of ADS-B, the air traffic control (ATC) system based on ADS-B faces serious security threats. Once the data is tampered with, it will cause immeasurable losses to society. The ADS-B data is arranged in chronological order, and the order-preserving encryption method allows users to directly search for ciphertexts by time. However, encryption alone does not guarantee the integrity of the data. The attacker can still destroy the integrity of the data by modifying the ciphertext. This paper proposes a secure ADS- B protection scheme that supports queries. We construct a dynamic order-preserving encryption (DOPE) scheme to achieve data confidentiality and sequential search of target data in the ciphertext. In addition, the scheme achieves fast integrity checking by calculating the unique verification label of the entire ciphertext, and supports blockless verification, which means that all data does not need to be transmitted during the audit phase. In the meanwhile, the auditor can verify the integrity of multiple ADS-B documents at once, which improves the computational efficiency of the audit. We analyze the integrity and security of the scheme and proved that DOPE is indistinguishable under an ordered chosen-plaintext attack (IND-OCPA). Furthermore, we conclude through performance analysis that the communication overhead is constant and computation overhead is logarithmic level. The proposed scheme is applicable to all data arranged in order, such as hospital records arranged by date and so on. At the same time, ADS-B can be used for urban vehicle monitoring and is a basic means to realize smart transportation.
Bhattacharjee, Arpan, Badsha, Shahriar, Sengupta, Shamik.  2021.  Personalized Privacy Preservation for Smart Grid. 2021 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–7.
The integration of advanced information, communication and data analytic technologies has transformed the traditional grid into an intelligent bidirectional system that can automatically adapt its services for utilities or consumers' needs. However, this change raises new privacy-related challenges. Privacy leakage has become a severe issue in the grid paradigm as adversaries run malicious analytics to identify the system's internal insight or use it to interrupt grids' operation by identifying real-time demand-based supply patterns. As a result, current grid authorities require an integrated mechanism to improve the system's sensitive data's privacy preservation. To this end, we present a multilayered smart grid architecture by characterizing the privacy issues that occur during data sharing, aggregation, and publishing by individual grid end nodes. Based on it, we quantify the nodes preferred privacy requirements. We further introduce personalized differential privacy (PDP) scheme based on trust distance in our proposed framework to provide the system with the added benefit of a user-specific privacy guarantee to eliminate differential privacy's limitation that allows the same level of privacy for all data providers. Lastly, we conduct extensive experimental analysis on a real-world grid dataset to illustrate that our proposed method is efficient enough to provide privacy preservation on sensitive smart grid data.
Dutta, Arjun, Chaki, Koustav, Sen, Ayushman, Kumar, Ashutosh, Chakrabarty, Ratna.  2021.  IoT based Sanitization Tunnel. 2021 5th International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1—5.
The Covid-19 Pandemic has caused huge losses worldwide and is still affecting people all around the world. Even after rigorous, incessant and dedicated efforts from people all around the world, it keeps mutating and spreading at an alarming rate. In times such as these, it is extremely important to take proper precautionary measures to stay safe and help to contain the spread of the virus. In this paper, we propose an innovative design of one such commonly used public disinfection method, an Automatic Walkthrough Sanitization Tunnel. It is a walkthrough sanitization tunnel which uses sensors to detect the target and automatically disinfects it followed by irradiation using UV-C rays for extra protection. There is a proposition to add an IoT based Temperature sensor and data relay module used to detect the temperature of any person entering the tunnel and in case of any anomaly, contact nearby covid wards to facilitate rapid treatment.
Muzammal, Syeda Mariam, Murugesan, Raja Kumar, Jhanjhi, NZ.  2021.  Introducing Mobility Metrics in Trust-based Security of Routing Protocol for Internet of Things. 2021 National Computing Colleges Conference (NCCC). :1—5.
Internet of Things (IoT) is flourishing in several application areas, such as smart cities, smart factories, smart homes, smart healthcare, etc. With the adoption of IoT in critical scenarios, it is crucial to investigate its security aspects. All the layers of IoT are vulnerable to severely disruptive attacks. However, the attacks in IoT Network layer have a high impact on communication between the connected objects. Routing in most of the IoT networks is carried out by IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL-based IoT offers limited protection against routing attacks. A trust-based approach for routing security is suitable to be integrated with IoT systems due to the resource-constrained nature of devices. This research proposes a trust-based secure routing protocol to provide security against packet dropping attacks in RPL-based IoT networks. IoT networks are dynamic and consist of both static and mobile nodes. Hence the chosen trust metrics in the proposed method also include the mobility-based metrics for trust evaluation. The proposed solution is integrated into RPL as a modified objective function, and the results are compared with the default RPL objective function, MRHOF. The analysis and evaluation of the proposed protocol indicate its efficacy and adaptability in a mobile IoT environment.
O’Toole, Sean, Sewell, Cameron, Mehrpouyan, Hoda.  2021.  IoT Security and Safety Testing Toolkits for Water Distribution Systems. 2021 8th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1—8.

Due to the critical importance of Industrial Control Systems (ICS) to the operations of cities and countries, research into the security of critical infrastructure has become increasingly relevant and necessary. As a component of both the research and application sides of smart city development, accurate and precise modeling, simulation, and verification are key parts of a robust design and development tools that provide critical assistance in the prevention, detection, and recovery from abnormal behavior in the sensors, controllers, and actuators which make up a modern ICS system. However, while these tools have potential, there is currently a need for helper-tools to assist with their setup and configuration, if they are to be utilized widely. Existing state-of-the-art tools are often technically complex and difficult to customize for any given IoT/ICS processes. This is a serious barrier to entry for most technicians, engineers, researchers, and smart city planners, while slowing down the critical aspects of safety and security verification. To remedy this issue, we take a case study of existing simulation toolkits within the field of water management and expand on existing tools and algorithms with simplistic automated retrieval functionality using a much more in-depth and usable customization interface to accelerate simulation scenario design and implementation, allowing for customization of the cyber-physical network infrastructure and cyber attack scenarios. We additionally provide a novel in-tool-assessment of network’s resilience according to graph theory path diversity. Further, we lay out a roadmap for future development and application of the proposed tool, including expansions on resiliency and potential vulnerability model checking, and discuss applications of our work to other fields relevant to the design and operation of smart cities.

Zhou, Zequan, Wang, Yupeng, Luo, Xiling, Bai, Yi, Wang, Xiaochao, Zeng, Feng.  2021.  Secure Accountable Dynamic Storage Integrity Verification. 2021 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/IOP/SCI). :440—447.
Integrity verification of cloud data is of great importance for secure and effective cloud storage since attackers can change the data even though it is encrypted. Traditional integrity verification schemes only let the client know the integrity status of the remote data. When the data is corrupted, the system cannot hold the server accountable. Besides, almost all existing schemes assume that the users are credible. Instead, especially in a dynamic operation environment, users can deny their behaviors, and let the server bear the penalty of data loss. To address the issues above, we propose an accountable dynamic storage integrity verification (ADS-IV) scheme which provides means to detect or eliminate misbehavior of all participants. In the meanwhile, we modify the Invertible Bloom Filter (IBF) to recover the corrupted data and use the Mahalanobis distance to calculate the degree of damage. We prove that our scheme is secure under Computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption and Discrete Logarithm (DL) assumption and that the audit process is privacy-preserving. The experimental results demonstrate that the computational complexity of the audit is constant; the storage overhead is \$O(\textbackslashtextbackslashsqrt n )\$, which is only 1/400 of the size of the original data; and the whole communication overhead is O(1).As a result, the proposed scheme is not only suitable for large-scale cloud data storage systems, but also for systems with sensitive data, such as banking systems, medical systems, and so on.
Xiaoqian, Xiong.  2021.  A Sensor Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for UAV Based on Neural Network. 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data Smart City (ICITBS). :260–265.
To improve the security and reliability of the system in case of sensor failure, a fault diagnosis algorithm based on neural network is proposed to locate the fault quickly and reconstruct the control system in this paper. Firstly, the typical airborne sensors are introduced and their common failure modes are analyzed. Then, a new method of complex feature extraction using wavelet packet is put forward to extract the fault characteristics of UAV sensors. Finally, the observer method based on BP neural network is adopted to train and acquire data offline, and to detect and process single or multiple sensor faults online. Matlab simulation results show that the algorithm has good diagnostic accuracy and strong generalization ability, which also has certain practicability in engineering.
Pollicino, Francesco, Ferretti, Luca, Stabili, Dario, Marchetti, Mirco.  2021.  Accountable and privacy-aware flexible car sharing and rental services. 2021 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–7.
The transportation sector is undergoing rapid changes to reduce pollution and increase life quality in urban areas. One of the most effective approaches is flexible car rental and sharing to reduce traffic congestion and parking space issues. In this paper, we envision a flexible car sharing framework where vehicle owners want to make their vehicles available for flexible rental to other users. The owners delegate the management of their vehicles to intermediate services under certain policies, such as municipalities or authorized services, which manage the due infrastructure and services that can be accessed by users. We investigate the design of an accountable solution that allow vehicles owners, who want to share their vehicles securely under certain usage policies, to control that delegated services and users comply with the policies. While monitoring users behavior, our approach also takes care of users privacy, preventing tracking or profiling procedures by other parties. Existing approaches put high trust assumptions on users and third parties, do not consider users' privacy requirements, or have limitations in terms of flexibility or applicability. We propose an accountable protocol that extends standard delegated authorizations and integrate it with Security Credential Management Systems (SCMS), while considering the requirements and constraints of vehicular networks. We show that the proposed approach represents a practical approach to guarantee accountability in realistic scenarios with acceptable overhead.
Abi Sen, Adnan Ahmed, M Alawfi, Ibrahim Moeed, Aloufi, Hazim Faisal, Bahbouh, Nour Mahmoud, Alsaawy, Yazed.  2021.  Comparison among Cooperation, Anonymity and Cloak Area Approaches for Preserving Privacy of IoT. 2021 8th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom). :413–416.
As a result of the importance of privacy at present, especially with the modern applications and technologies that have spread in the last decade, many techniques and methods have appeared to preserve privacy and protect users' data from tracking, profiling, or identification. The most popular of these technologies are those which rely on peer-to-peer or third-party cooperation. But, by reviewing a significant portion of existing research articles related to privacy, we find considerable confusion amongst several concepts and ways of protection, such as the concept of cloak area, Anonymizer, cooperation, and Third Party Peers (TTP). In this research, we revisit and review these approaches, which contain an overlap between them to distinguish each one clearly with the help of graphs and to remove their ambiguity. In this way, we shall be able provide a ready-reckoner to those interested in this field to easily differentiate between them and thus work to develop them and provide new methods. In other words, this research seeks to enhance the privacy and security in smart applications and technologies in the IoT and smart city environments.
Chouhan, Pushpinder Kaur, Chen, Liming, Hussain, Tazar, Beard, Alfie.  2021.  A Situation Calculus based approach to Cognitive Modelling for Responding to IoT Cyberattacks. 2021 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/IOP/SCI). :219—225.
Both the sophistication and scale of cyberattacks are increasing, revealing the extent of risks at which critical infrastructure and other information and communication systems are exposed. Furthermore, the introduction of IoT devices in a number of different applications, ranging from home automation to the monitoring of critical infrastructure, has created an even more complicated cybersecurity landscape. A large amount of research has been done on detecting these attacks in real time, however mitigation is left to security experts, which is time consuming and may have economic consequences. In addition, there is no public data available for action selection that could enable the use of the latest techniques in machine learning or deep learning for this area. Currently, most systems deploy a rule-based response selection methodology for mitigating detected attacks. In this paper, we introduce a situation calculus-based approach to automated response for IoT cyberattacks. The approach offers explicit semantic-rich cognitive modeling of attacks, effects and actions and supports situation inference for timely and accurate responses. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for modelling and responding to cyberattacks by implementing a use case in a real-world IoT scenario.
Lee, JiEun, Jeong, SeungMyeong, Yoo, Seong Ki, Song, JaeSeung.  2021.  SSF: Smart city Semantics Framework for reusability of semantic data. 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1625—1627.
Semantic data has semantic information about the relationship between information and resources of data collected in a smart city so that all different domains and data can be organically connected. Various services using semantic data such as public data integration of smart cities, semantic search, and linked open data are emerging, and services that open and freely use semantic data are also increasing. By using semantic data, it is possible to create a variety of services regardless of platform and resource characteristics. However, despite the many advantages of semantic data, it is not easy to use because it requires a high understanding of semantics such as SPARQL. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a semantic framework for users of semantic data so that new services can be created without a high understanding of semantics. The semantics framework includes a template-based annotator that supports automatically generating semantic data based on user input and a semantic REST API that allows you to utilize semantic data without understanding SPAROL.
Yatskiv, Vasyl, Kulyna, Serhii, Yatskiv, Nataliya, Kulyna, Halyna.  2020.  Protected Distributed Data Storage Based on Residue Number System and Cloud Services. 2020 10th International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT). :796–799.
The reliable distributed data storage system based on the Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS) is developed. The structure of the system, data splitting and recovery algorithms based on RRNS are developed. A study of the total time and time spent on converting ASCII-encoded data into a RRNS for files of various sizes is conducted. The research of data recovery time is conducted for the inverse transformation from RRNS to ASCII codes.
Bosaeed, Sahar, Katib, Iyad, Mehmood, Rashid.  2020.  A Fog-Augmented Machine Learning based SMS Spam Detection and Classification System. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :325–330.
Smart cities and societies are driving unprecedented technological and socioeconomic growth in everyday life albeit making us increasingly vulnerable to infinitely and incomprehensibly diverse threats. Short Message Service (SMS) spam is one such threat that can affect mobile security by propagating malware on mobile devices. A security breach could also cause a mobile device to send spam messages. Many works have focused on classifying incoming SMS messages. This paper proposes a tool to detect spam from outgoing SMS messages, although the work can be applied to both incoming and outgoing SMS messages. Specifically, we develop a system that comprises multiple machine learning (ML) based classifiers built by us using three classification methods – Naïve Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes Multinomial (NBM)- and five preprocessing and feature extraction methods. The system is built to allow its execution in cloud, fog or edge layers, and is evaluated using 15 datasets built by 4 widely-used public SMS datasets. The system detects spam SMSs and gives recommendations on the spam filters and classifiers to be used based on user preferences including classification accuracy, True Negatives (TN), and computational resource requirements.
Al Omar, Abdullah, Jamil, Abu Kaisar, Nur, Md. Shakhawath Hossain, Hasan, Md Mahamudul, Bosri, Rabeya, Bhuiyan, Md Zakirul Alam, Rahman, Mohammad Shahriar.  2020.  Towards A Transparent and Privacy-Preserving Healthcare Platform with Blockchain for Smart Cities. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1291–1296.
In smart cities, data privacy and security issues of Electronic Health Record(EHR) are grabbing importance day by day as cyber attackers have identified the weaknesses of EHR platforms. Besides, health insurance companies interacting with the EHRs play a vital role in covering the whole or a part of the financial risks of a patient. Insurance companies have specific policies for which patients have to pay them. Sometimes the insurance policies can be altered by fraudulent entities. Another problem that patients face in smart cities is when they interact with a health organization, insurance company, or others, they have to prove their identity to each of the organizations/companies separately. Health organizations or insurance companies have to ensure they know with whom they are interacting. To build a platform where a patient's personal information and insurance policy are handled securely, we introduce an application of blockchain to solve the above-mentioned issues. In this paper, we present a solution for the healthcare system that will provide patient privacy and transparency towards the insurance policies incorporating blockchain. Privacy of the patient information will be provided using cryptographic tools.
Franchina, L., Socal, A..  2020.  Innovative Predictive Model for Smart City Security Risk Assessment. 2020 43rd International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO). :1831–1836.
In a Smart City, new technologies such as big data analytics, data fusion and artificial intelligence will increase awareness by measuring many phenomena and storing a huge amount of data. 5G will allow communication of these data among different infrastructures instantaneously. In a Smart City, security aspects are going to be a major concern. Some drawbacks, such as vulnerabilities of a highly integrated system and information overload, must be considered. To overcome these downsides, an innovative predictive model for Smart City security risk assessment has been developed. Risk metrics and indicators are defined by considering data coming from a wide range of sensors. An innovative ``what if'' algorithm is introduced to identify critical infrastructures functional relationship. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the effects of an incident that involves one infrastructure over the others.