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Report
Nathan Malkin, Primal Wijesekera, Serge Egelman, David Wagner.  2018.  Use Case: Passively Listening Personal Assistants. Symposium on Applications of Contextual Integrity. :26-27.
Presentation
Jim Blythe, University of Southern California, Sean Smith, Dartmouth College.  2015.  Understanding and Accounting for Human Behavior.

Since computers are machines, it's tempting to think of computer security as purely a technical problem. However, computing systems are created, used, and maintained by humans, and exist to serve the goals of human and institutional stakeholders. Consequently, effectively addressing the security problem requires understanding this human dimension.


In this tutorial, we discuss this challenge and survey principal research approaches to it.
 

Invited Tutorial, Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security (HotSoS 2015), April 2015, Urbana, IL.

Tao Xie, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2016.  User Expectations in Mobile App Security.

Maintaining the security and privacy hygiene of mobile apps is a critical challenge. Unfortunately, no program analysis algorithm can determine that an application is “secure” or “malware-free.” For example, if an application records audio during a phone call, it may be malware. However, the user may want to use such an application to record phone calls for archival and benign purposes. A key challenge for automated program analysis tools is determining whether or not that behavior is actually desired by the user (i.e., user expectation). This talk presents recent research progress in exploring user expectations in mobile app security.

Presented at the ITI Joint Trust and Security/Science of Security Seminar, January 26, 2016.

Magazine Article
Roopak Venkatakrishnan, Mladen A. Vouk.  2016.  Using redundancy to detect security anomalies: towards IoT security attack detectors. Ubiquity. 2016:1-19.

Cyber-attacks and breaches are often detected too late to avoid damage. While “classical” reactive cyber defenses usually work only if we have some prior knowledge about the attack methods and “allowable” patterns, properly constructed redundancy-based anomaly detectors can be more robust and often able to detect even zero day attacks. They are a step toward an oracle that uses knowable behavior of a healthy system to identify abnormalities. In the world of Internet of Things (IoT), security, and anomalous behavior of sensors and other IoT components, will be orders of magnitude more difficult unless we make those elements security aware from the start. In this article we examine the ability of redundancy-based a nomaly detectors to recognize some high-risk and difficult to detect attacks on web servers—a likely management interface for many IoT stand-alone elements. In real life, it has taken long, a number of years in some cases, to identify some of the vulnerabilities and related attacks. We discuss practical relevance of the approach in the context of providing high-assurance Webservices that may belong to autonomous IoT applications and devices

Journal Article
Cesar, Pablo, Zwitser, Robert, Webb, Andrew, Ashby, Liam, Ali, Abdallah.  2019.  Uncovering Perceived Identification Accuracy of In-Vehicle Biometric Sensing | Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: Adjunct Proceedings. AutomotiveUI '19: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: Adjunct Proceedings.

Biometric techniques can help make vehicles safer to drive, authenticate users, and provide personalized in-car experiences. However, it is unclear to what extent users are willing to trade their personal biometric data for such benefits. In this early work, we conducted an open card sorting study (N=11) to better understand how well users perceive their physical, behavioral and physiological features can personally identify them. Findings showed that on average participants clustered features into six groups, and helped us revise ambiguous cards and better understand users' clustering. These findings provide the basis for a follow up online closed card sorting study to more fully understand perceived identification accuracy of (in-vehicle) biometric sensing. By uncovering this at a larger scale, we can then further study the privacy and user experience trade-off in (automated) vehicles.

Ricard López Fogués, Pradeep K. Murukannaiah, Jose M. Such, Munindar P. Singh.  2017.  Understanding Sharing Policies in Multiparty Scenarios: Incorporating Context, Preferences, and Arguments into Decision Making. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction.

Social network services enable users to conveniently share personal information.  Often, the information shared concerns other people, especially other members of the social network service.  In such situations, two or more people can have conflicting privacy preferences; thus, an appropriate sharing policy may not be apparent. We identify such situations as multiuser privacy scenarios. Current approaches propose finding a sharing policy through preference aggregation.  However, studies suggest that users feel more confident in their decisions regarding sharing when they know the reasons behind each other's preferences.  The goals of this paper are (1) understanding how people decide the appropriate sharing policy in multiuser scenarios where arguments are employed, and (2) developing a computational model to predict an appropriate sharing policy for a given scenario. We report on a study that involved a survey of 988 Amazon MTurk users about a variety of multiuser scenarios and the optimal sharing policy for each scenario.  Our evaluation of the participants' responses reveals that contextual factors, user preferences, and arguments influence the optimal sharing policy in a multiuser scenario.  We develop and evaluate an inference model that predicts the optimal sharing policy given the three types of features.  We analyze the predictions of our inference model to uncover potential scenario types that lead to incorrect predictions, and to enhance our understanding of when multiuser scenarios are more or less prone to dispute.

 

To appear

Jiao, Y., Hohlfield, J., Victora, R. H..  2018.  Understanding Transition and Remanence Noise in HAMR. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

Transition noise and remanence noise are the two most important types of media noise in heat-assisted magnetic recording. We examine two methods (spatial splitting and principal components analysis) to distinguish them: both techniques show similar trends with respect to applied field and grain pitch (GP). It was also found that PW50can be affected by GP and reader design, but is almost independent of write field and bit length (larger than 50 nm). Interestingly, our simulation shows a linear relationship between jitter and PW50NSRrem, which agrees qualitatively with experimental results.

Anyfantis, D. I., Sarigiannidou, E., Rapenne, L., Stamatelatos, A., Ntemogiannis, D., Kapaklis, V., Poulopoulos, P..  2019.  Unexpected Development of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Ni/NiO Multilayers After Mild Thermal Annealing. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–5.
We report on the significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ni/NiO multilayers after mild annealing up to 90 min at 250 °C. Transmission electron microscopy shows that after annealing, a partial crystallization of the initially amorphous NiO layers occurs. This turns out to be the source of the anisotropy enhancement. Magnetic measurements reveal that even multilayers with Ni layers as thick as 7 nm, which in the as-deposited state showed inplane anisotropy with square hysteresis loops, show reduced in-plane remanence after thermal treatment. Hysteresis loops recorded with the field in the normal-to-film-plane direction provide evidence for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with up and down magnetic domains at remanence. A plot of effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant times individual Ni layer thickness as a function of individual Ni layer thickness shows a large change in the slope of the data attributed to a drastic change of volume anisotropy. Surface anisotropy showed a small decrease because of some layer roughening introduced by annealing.
Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Bao, Wei, Dong, Zhao Yang, Vucetic, Branka, Bertino, Elisa.  2019.  Universally Composable Key Bootstrapping and Secure Communication Protocols for the Energy Internet. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 14:2113–2127.
The Energy Internet is an advanced smart grid solution to increase energy efficiency by jointly operating multiple energy resources via the Internet. However, such an increasing integration of energy resources requires secure and efficient communication in the Energy Internet. To address such a requirement, we propose a new secure key bootstrapping protocol to support the integration and operation of energy resources. By using a universal composability model that provides a strong security notion for designing and analyzing cryptographic protocols, we define an ideal functionality that supports several cryptographic primitives used in this paper. Furthermore, we provide an ideal functionality for key bootstrapping and secure communication, which allows exchanged session keys to be used for secure communication in an ideal manner. We propose the first secure key bootstrapping protocol that enables a user to verify the identities of other users before key bootstrapping. We also present a secure communication protocol for unicast and multicast communications. The ideal functionalities help in the design and analysis of the proposed protocols. We perform some experiments to validate the performance of our protocols, and the results show that our protocols are superior to the existing related protocols and are suitable for the Energy Internet. As a proof of concept, we apply our functionalities to a practical key bootstrapping protocol, namely generic bootstrapping architecture.
Su, C., Santoso, B., Li, Y., Deng, R. H., Huang, X..  2017.  Universally Composable RFID Mutual Authentication. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 14:83–94.

Universally Composable (UC) framework provides the strongest security notion for designing fully trusted cryptographic protocols, and it is very challenging on applying UC security in the design of RFID mutual authentication protocols. In this paper, we formulate the necessary conditions for achieving UC secure RFID mutual authentication protocols which can be fully trusted in arbitrary environment, and indicate the inadequacy of some existing schemes under the UC framework. We define the ideal functionality for RFID mutual authentication and propose the first UC secure RFID mutual authentication protocol based on public key encryption and certain trusted third parties which can be modeled as functionalities. We prove the security of our protocol under the strongest adversary model assuming both the tags' and readers' corruptions. We also present two (public) key update protocols for the cases of multiple readers: one uses Message Authentication Code (MAC) and the other uses trusted certificates in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Furthermore, we address the relations between our UC framework and the zero-knowledge privacy model proposed by Deng et al. [1].

Wang, Kai, Zhao, Yude, liu, Shugang, Tong, Xiangrong.  2018.  On the urgency of implementing Interest NACK into CCN: from the perspective of countering advanced interest flooding attacks. IET Networks. 7:136–140.
Content centric networking (CCN) where content/named data as the first entity has become one of the most promising architectures for the future Internet. To achieve better security, the Interest NACK mechanism is introduced into CCN; however, it has not attracted enough attention and most of the CCN architectures do not embed Interest NACK until now. This study focuses on analysing the urgency of implementing Interest NACK into CCN, by designing a novel network threat named advanced interest flooding attack (AIFA) to attack CCN, which can not only exhaust the pending interest table (PIT) resource of each involved router just as normal interest flooding attack (IFA), but also keep each PIT entry unexpired until it finishes, making it harder to detect and more harmful when compared with the normal IFA. Specifically, the damage of AIFA on CCN architecture with and without Interest NACK is evaluated and analysed, compared with normal IFA, and then the urgency of implementing Interest NACK is highlighted.
Xusheng Xiao, NEC Laboratories America, Nikolai Tillmann, Microsoft Research, Manuel Fahndrich, Microsoft Research, Jonathan de Halleux, Microsoft Research, Michal Moskal, Microsoft Research, Tao Xie, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2015.  User-Aware Privacy Control via Extended Static-Information-Flow Analysis. Automated Software Engineering Journal. 22(3)

Applications in mobile marketplaces may leak private user information without notification. Existing mobile platforms provide little information on how applications use private user data, making it difficult for experts to validate appli- cations and for users to grant applications access to their private data. We propose a user-aware-privacy-control approach, which reveals how private information is used inside applications. We compute static information flows and classify them as safe/un- safe based on a tamper analysis that tracks whether private data is obscured before escaping through output channels. This flow information enables platforms to provide default settings that expose private data for only safe flows, thereby preserving privacy and minimizing decisions required from users. We build our approach into TouchDe- velop, an application-creation environment that allows users to write scripts on mobile devices and install scripts published by other users. We evaluate our approach by studying 546 scripts published by 194 users, and the results show that our approach effectively reduces the need to make access-granting choices to only 10.1 % (54) of all scripts. We also conduct a user survey that involves 50 TouchDevelop users to assess the effectiveness and usability of our approach. The results show that 90 % of the users consider our approach useful in protecting their privacy, and 54 % prefer our approach over other privacy-control approaches.

Tiennoy, Sasirom, Saivichit, Chaiyachet.  2018.  Using a Distributed Roadside Unit for the Data Dissemination Protocol in VANET With the Named Data Architecture. IEEE Access. 6:32612–32623.
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has recently become one of the highly active research areas for wireless networking. Since VANET is a multi-hop wireless network with very high mobility and intermittent connection lifetime, it is important to effectively handle the data dissemination issue in this rapidly changing environment. However, the existing TCP/IP implementation may not fit into such a highly dynamic environment because the nodes in the network must often perform rerouting due to their inconsistency of connectivity. In addition, the drivers in the vehicles may want to acquire some data, but they do not know the address/location of such data storage. Hence, the named data networking (NDN) approach may be more desirable here. The NDN architecture is proposed for the future Internet, which focuses on the delivering mechanism based on the message contents instead of relying on the host addresses of the data. In this paper, a new protocol named roadside unit (RSU) assisted of named data network (RA-NDN) is presented. The RSU can operate as a standalone node [standalone RSU (SA-RSU)]. One benefit of deploying SA-RSUs is the improved network connectivity. This study uses the NS3 and SUMO software packages for the network simulator and traffic simulator software, respectively, to verify the performance of the RA-NDN protocol. To reduce the latency under various vehicular densities, vehicular transmission ranges, and number of requesters, the proposed approach is compared with vehicular NDN via a real-world data set in the urban area of Sathorn road in Bangkok, Thailand. The simulation results show that the RA-NDN protocol improves the performance of ad hoc communications with the increase in data received ratio and throughput and the decrease in total dissemination time and traffic load.
Hernández, S., Lu, P. L., Granz, S., Krivosik, P., Huang, P. W., Eppler, W., Rausch, T., Gage, E..  2017.  Using Ensemble Waveform Analysis to Compare Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording Characteristics of Modeled and Measured Signals. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 53:1–6.

Ensemble waveform analysis is used to calculate signal to noise ratio (SNR) and other recording characteristics from micromagnetically modeled heat assisted magnetic recording waveforms and waveforms measured at both drive and spin-stand level. Using windowing functions provides the breakdown between transition and remanence SNRs. In addition, channel bit density (CBD) can be extracted from the ensemble waveforms using the di-bit extraction method. Trends in both transition SNR, remanence SNR, and CBD as a function of ambient temperature at constant track width showed good agreement between model and measurement. Both model and drive-level measurement show degradation in SNR at higher ambient temperatures, which may be due to changes in the down-track profile at the track edges compared with track center. CBD as a function of cross-track position is also calculated for both modeling and spin-stand measurements. The CBD widening at high cross-track offset, which is observed at both measurement and model, was directly related to the radius of curvature of the written transitions observed in the model and the thermal profiles used.

Cabaj, K., Mazurczyk, W..  2016.  Using Software-Defined Networking for Ransomware Mitigation: The Case of CryptoWall. IEEE Network. 30:14–20.

Currently, different forms of ransomware are increasingly threatening Internet users. Modern ransomware encrypts important user data, and it is only possible to recover it once a ransom has been paid. In this article we show how software-defined networking can be utilized to improve ransomware mitigation. In more detail, we analyze the behavior of popular ransomware - CryptoWall - and, based on this knowledge, propose two real-time mitigation methods. Then we describe the design of an SDN-based system, implemented using OpenFlow, that facilitates a timely reaction to this threat, and is a crucial factor in the case of crypto ransomware. What is important is that such a design does not significantly affect overall network performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is feasible and efficient.

Conference Proceedings
Weining Yang, Aiping Xiong, Jing Chen, Robert W. Proctor, Ninghui Li.  2017.  Use of Phishing Training to Improve Security Warning Compliance: Evidence from a Field Experiment.

The current approach to protect users from phishing attacks is to display a warning when the webpage is considered suspicious. We hypothesize that users are capable of making correct informed decisions when the warning also conveys the reasons why it is displayed. We chose to use traffic rankings of domains, which can be easily described to users, as a warning trigger and evaluated the effect of the phishing warning message and phishing training. The evaluation was conducted in a field experiment. We found that knowledge gained from the training enhances the effectiveness of phishing warnings, as the number of participants being phished was reduced. However, the knowledge by itself was not sufficient to provide phishing protection. We suggest that integrating training in the warning interface, involving traffic ranking in phishing detection, and explaining why warnings are generated will improve current phishing defense.

Conference Paper
Biagioni, E..  2014.  Ubiquitous Interpersonal Communication over Ad-hoc Networks and the Internet. System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on. :5144-5153.

The hardware and low-level software in many mobile devices are capable of mobile-to-mobile communication, including ad-hoc 802.11, Bluetooth, and cognitive radios. We have started to leverage this capability to provide interpersonal communication both over infrastructure networks (the Internet), and over ad-hoc and delay-tolerant networks composed of the mobile devices themselves. This network is decentralized in the sense that it can function without any infrastructure, but does take advantage of infrastructure connections when available. All interpersonal communication is encrypted and authenticated so packets may be carried by devices belonging to untrusted others. The decentralized model of security builds a flexible trust network on top of the social network of communicating individuals. This social network can be used to prioritize packets to or from individuals closely related by the social network. Other packets are prioritized to favor packets likely to consume fewer network resources. Each device also has a policy that determines how many packets may be forwarded, with the goal of providing useful interpersonal communications using at most 1% of any given resource on mobile devices. One challenge in a fully decentralized network is routing. Our design uses Rendezvous Points (RPs) and Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) for delivery over infrastructure networks, and hop-limited broadcast and Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) within the wireless ad-hoc network.

Caballero-Gil, Pino, Caballero-Gil, Cándido, Molina-Gil, Jezabel.  2018.  Ubiquitous System to Monitor Transport and Logistics. Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, & Ubiquitous Networks. :71–75.
In the management of transport and logistics, which includes the delivery, movement and collection of goods through roads, ports and airports, participate, in general, many different actors. The most critical aspects of supply chain systems include time, space and interdependencies. Besides, there are several security challenges that can be caused both by unintentional and intentional errors. With all this in mind, this work proposes the combination of technologies such as RFID, GPS, WiFi Direct and LTE/3G to automate product authentication and merchandise tracking, reducing the negative effects caused either by mismanagement or attacks against the process of the supply chain. In this way, this work proposes a ubiquitous management scheme for the monitoring through the cloud of freight and logistics systems, including demand management, customization and automatic replenishment of out-of-stock goods. The proposal implies an improvement in the efficiency of the systems, which can be quantified in a reduction of time and cost in the inventory and distribution processes, and in a greater facility for the detection of counterfeit versions of branded articles. In addition, it can be used to create safer and more efficient schemes that help companies and organizations to improve the quality of the service and the traceability of the transported goods.
Zhang, Lin, Zhang, Zhenfeng, Hu, Xuexian.  2016.  UC-secure Two-Server Password-Based Authentication Protocol and Its Applications. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :153–164.

A two-server password-based authentication (2PA) protocol is a special kind of authentication primitive that provides additional protection for the user's password. Through a 2PA protocol, a user can distribute his low-entropy password between two authentication servers in the initialization phase and authenticate himself merely via a matching password in the login phase. No single server can learn any information about the user's password, nor impersonate the legitimate user to authenticate to the honest server. In this paper, we first formulate and realize the security definition of two-server password-based authentication in the well-known universal composability (UC) framework, which thus provides desirable properties such as composable security. We show that our construction is suitable for the asymmetric communication model in which one server acts as the front-end server interacting directly with the user and the other stays backstage. Then, we show that our protocol could be easily extended to more complicate password-based cryptographic protocols such as two-server password-authenticated key exchange (2PAKE) and two-server password-authenticated secret sharing (2PASS), which enjoy stronger security guarantees and better efficiency performances in comparison with the existing schemes.

Gu, Yanyang, Zhang, Ping, Chen, Zhifeng, Cao, Fei.  2020.  UEFI Trusted Computing Vulnerability Analysis Based on State Transition Graph. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1043–1052.
In the face of increasingly serious firmware attacks, it is of great significance to analyze the vulnerability security of UEFI. This paper first introduces the commonly used trusted authentication mechanisms of UEFI. Then, aiming at the loopholes in the process of UEFI trust verification in the startup phase, combined with the state transition diagram, PageRank algorithm and Bayesian network theory, the analysis model of UEFI trust verification startup vulnerability is constructed. And according to the example to verify the analysis. Through the verification and analysis of the data obtained, the vulnerable attack paths and key vulnerable nodes are found. Finally, according to the analysis results, security enhancement measures for UEFI are proposed.
Alamri, N., Chow, C. E., Aljaedi, A., Elgzil, A..  2018.  UFAP: Ultra-fast handoff authentication protocol for wireless mesh networks. 2018 Wireless Days (WD). :1–8.
Wireless mesh networking (WMN) is a new technology aimed to introduce the benefits of using multi-hop and multi-path to the wireless world. However, the absence of a fast and reliable handoff protocol is a major drawback especially in a technology designed to feature high mobility and scalability. We propose a fast and efficient handoff authentication protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is a token-based authentication protocol using pre-distributed parameters. We provide a performance comparison among our protocol, UFAP, and other protocols including EAP-TLS and EAP-PEAP tested in an actual setup. Performance analysis will prove that our proposed handoff authentication protocol is 250 times faster than EAP-PEAP and 500 times faster than EAP-TLS. The significant improvement in performance allows UFAP to provide seamless handoff and continuous operation even for real-time applications which can only tolerate short delays under 50 ms.
Huang, Jeff.  2018.  UFO: Predictive Concurrency Use-After-Free Detection. 2018 IEEE/ACM 40th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :609-619.

Use-After-Free (UAF) vulnerabilities are caused by the program operating on a dangling pointer and can be exploited to compromise critical software systems. While there have been many tools to mitigate UAF vulnerabilities, UAF remains one of the most common attack vectors. UAF is particularly di cult to detect in concurrent programs, in which a UAF may only occur with rare thread schedules. In this paper, we present a novel technique, UFO, that can precisely predict UAFs based on a single observed execution trace with a provably higher detection capability than existing techniques with no false positives. The key technical advancement of UFO is an extended maximal thread causality model that captures the largest possible set of feasible traces that can be inferred from a given multithreaded execution trace. By formulating UAF detection as a constraint solving problem atop this model, we can explore a much larger thread scheduling space than classical happens-before based techniques. We have evaluated UFO on several real-world large complex C/C++ programs including Chromium and FireFox. UFO scales to real-world systems with hundreds of millions of events in their execution and has detected a large number of real concurrency UAFs.