Visible to the public Biblio

Found 12996 results

2020
Sah, Love Kumar, Polnati, Srivarsha, Islam, Sheikh Ariful, Katkoori, Srinivas.  2020.  Basic Block Encoding Based Run-Time CFI Check for Embedded Software. 2020 IFIP/IEEE 28th International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SOC). :135–140.
Modern control flow attacks circumvent existing defense mechanisms to transfer the program control to attacker chosen malicious code in the program, leaving application vulnerable to attack. Advanced attacks such as Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) attack and its variants, transfer program execution to gadgets (code-snippet that ends with return instruction). The code space to generate gadgets is large and attacks using these gadgets are Turing-complete. One big challenge to harden the program against ROP attack is to confine gadget selection to a limited locations, thus leaving the attacker to search entire code space according to payload criteria. In this paper, we present a novel approach to label the nodes of the Control-Flow Graph (CFG) of a program such that labels of the nodes on a valid control flow edge satisfy a Hamming distance property. The newly encoded CFG enables detection of illegal control flow transitions during the runtime in the processor pipeline. Experimentally, we have demonstrated that the proposed Control Flow Integrity (CFI) implementation is effective against control-flow hijacking and the technique can reduce the search space of the ROP gadgets upto 99.28%. We have also validated our technique on seven applications from MiBench and the proposed labeling mechanism incurs no instruction count overhead while, on average, it increases instruction width to a maximum of 12.13%.
Himthani, P., Dubey, G. P., Sharma, B. M., Taneja, A..  2020.  Big Data Privacy and Challenges for Machine Learning. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :707—713.

The field of Big Data is expanding at an alarming rate since its inception in 2012. The excessive use of Social Networking Sites, collection of Data from Sensors for analysis and prediction of future events, improvement in Customer Satisfaction on Online S hopping portals by monitoring their past behavior and providing them information, items and offers of their interest instantaneously, etc had led to this rise in the field of Big Data. This huge amount of data, if analyzed and processed properly, can lead to decisions and outcomes that would be of great values and benefits to organizations and individuals. Security of Data and Privacy of User is of keen interest and high importance for individuals, industry and academia. Everyone ensure that their Sensitive information must be kept away from unauthorized access and their assets must be kept safe from security breaches. Privacy and Security are also equally important for Big Data and here, it is typical and complex to ensure the Privacy and Security, as the amount of data is enormous. One possible option to effectively and efficiently handle, process and analyze the Big Data is to make use of Machine Learning techniques. Machine Learning techniques are straightforward; applying them on Big Data requires resolution of various issues and is a challenging task, as the size of Data is too big. This paper provides a brief introduction to Big Data, the importance of Security and Privacy in Big Data and the various challenges that are required to overcome for applying the Machine Learning techniques on Big Data.

Wang, Yazhou, Li, Bing, Zhang, Yan, Wu, Jiaxin, Yuan, Pengwei, Liu, Guimiao.  2020.  A Biometric Key Generation Mechanism for Authentication Based on Face Image. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :231—235.
Facial biometrics have the advantages of high reliability, strong distinguishability and easily acquired for authentication. Therefore, it is becoming wildly used in identity authentication filed. However, there are stability, security and privacy issues in generating face key, which brings great challenges to face biometric authentication. In this paper, we propose a biometric key generation scheme based on face image. On the one hand, a deep neural network model for feature extraction is used to improve the stability of identity authentication. On the other hand, a key generation mechanism is designed to generate random biometric key while hiding original facial biometrics to enhance security and privacy of user authentication. The results show the FAR reach to 0.53% and the FRR reach to 0.57% in LFW face database, which achieves the better performance of biometric identification, and the proposed method is able to realize randomness of the generated biometric keys by NIST statistical test suite.
Al'aziz, Bram Andika Ahmad, Sukarno, Parman, Wardana, Aulia Arif.  2020.  Blacklisted IP Distribution System to Handle DDoS Attacks on IPS Snort Based on Blockchain. 2020 6th Information Technology International Seminar (ITIS). :41–45.
The mechanism for distributing information on the source of the attack by combining blockchain technology with the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) can be done so that DDoS attack mitigation becomes more flexible, saves resources and costs. Also, by informing the blacklisted Internet Protocol(IP), each IPS can share attack source information so that attack traffic blocking can be carried out on IPS that are closer to the source of the attack. Therefore, the attack traffic passing through the network can be drastically reduced because the attack traffic has been blocked on the IPS that is closer to the attack source. The blocking of existing DDoS attack traffic is generally carried out on each IPS without a mechanism to share information on the source of the attack so that each IPS cannot cooperate. Also, even though the DDoS attack traffic did not reach the server because it had been blocked by IPS, the attack traffic still flooded the network so that network performance was reduced. Through smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, it is possible to inform the source of the attack or blacklisted IP addresses without requiring additional infrastructure. The blacklisted IP address is used by IPS to detect and handle DDoS attacks. Through the blacklisted IP distribution scheme, testing and analysis are carried out to see information on the source of the attack on each IPS and the attack traffic that passes on the network. The result is that each IPS can have the same blacklisted IP so that each IPS can have the same attack source information. The results also showed that the attack traffic through the network infrastructure can be drastically reduced. Initially, the total number of attack packets had an average of 115,578 reduced to 27,165.
Zhang, Yan, Li, Bing, Wang, Yazhou, Wu, Jiaxin, Yuan, Pengwei.  2020.  A Blockchain-based User Remote Autentication Scheme in IoT Systems Using Physical Unclonable Functions. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :1100—1105.
Achieving efficient and secure accesses to real-time information from the designated IoT node is the fundamental key requirement for the applications of the Internet of Things. However, IoT nodes are prone to physical attacks, public channels reveal the sensitive information, and gateways that manage the IoT nodes suffer from the single-point failure, thereby causing the security and privacy problems. In this paper, a blockchain-based user remote authentication scheme using physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is proposed to overcome these problems. The PUFs provide physically secure identities for the IoT nodes and the blockchain acts as a distributed database to manage the key materials reliably for gateways. The security analysis is conducted and shows that our scheme realizes reliable security features and resists various attacks. Furthermore, a prototype was implemented to prove our scheme is efficient, scalable, and suitable for IoT scenarios.
Atlidakis, V., Godefroid, P., Polishchuk, M..  2020.  Checking Security Properties of Cloud Service REST APIs. 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST). :387—397.

Most modern cloud and web services are programmatically accessed through REST APIs. This paper discusses how an attacker might compromise a service by exploiting vulnerabilities in its REST API. We introduce four security rules that capture desirable properties of REST APIs and services. We then show how a stateful REST API fuzzer can be extended with active property checkers that automatically test and detect violations of these rules. We discuss how to implement such checkers in a modular and efficient way. Using these checkers, we found new bugs in several deployed production Azure and Office365 cloud services, and we discuss their security implications. All these bugs have been fixed.

Djordjevic, Ivan B..  2020.  Cluster States-based Quantum Networks. 2020 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). :1—2.
We propose to implement multipartite quantum communication network (QCN) by employing the cluster- state-based concept. The proposed QCN can be used to: (i) perform distributed quantum computing, (ii) teleport quantum states between any two nodes in QCN, and (iii) enable next generation of cyber security systems.
Alamsyah, Zaenal, Mantoro, Teddy, Adityawarman, Umar, Ayu, Media Anugerah.  2020.  Combination RSA with One Time Pad for Enhanced Scheme of Two-Factor Authentication. 2020 6th International Conference on Computing Engineering and Design (ICCED). :1—5.
RSA is a popular asymmetric key algorithm with two keys scheme, a public key for encryption and private key for decryption. RSA has weaknesses in encryption and decryption of data, including slow in the process of encryption and decryption because it uses a lot of number generation. The reason is RSA algorithm can work well and is resistant to attacks such as brute force and statistical attacks. in this paper, it aims to strengthen the scheme by combining RSA with the One Time Pad algorithm so that it will bring up a new design to be used to enhance security on two-factor authentication. Contribution in this paper is to find a new scheme algorithm for an enhanced scheme of RSA. One Time Pad and RSA can combine as well.
Primo, Abena.  2020.  A Comparison of Blockchain-Based Wireless Sensor Network Protocols. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0793—0799.
Wireless sensors are often deployed in environments where it is difficult for them to discern friend from enemy. An example case is a military tactical scenario, where sensors are deployed to map the location of an item but where some of the nodes have been compromised or where there are other malicious nodes present. In this scenario, sharing data with other network nodes may present a critical security risk to the sensor nodes. Blockchain technology, with its ability to house a secure distributed ledger, offers a possible solution. However, blockchain applications for Wireless Sensor Networks suffer from poor latency in block propagation which in turn decreases throughput and network scalability. Several researchers have proposed solutions for improved network throughput. In this work, a comparison of these existing works is performed leading to a taxonomy of existing algorithms. Characteristics consistently found in algorithms reporting improved throughput are presented and, later, these characteristics are used in the development of a new algorithm for improving throughput. The proposed algorithm utilizes a proof-of- authority consensus algorithm with a node trust-based scheme. The proposed algorithm shows strong results over the base case algorithm and was evaluated with blockchain network simulations of up to 20000 nodes.
Abdulkarem, H. S., Dawod, A..  2020.  DDoS Attack Detection and Mitigation at SDN Data Plane Layer. 2020 2nd Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM). :322—326.
In the coming future, Software-defined networking (SDN) will become a technology more responsive, fully automated, and highly secure. SDN is a way to manage networks by separate the control plane from the forwarding plane, by using software to manage network functions through a centralized control point. A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is the most popular malicious attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network. The problem of the paper is the DDoS attack inside the SDN environment and how could use SDN specifications through the advantage of Open vSwitch programmability feature to stop the attack. This paper presents DDoS attack detection and mitigation in the SDN data-plane by applying a written SDN application in python language, based on the malicious traffic abnormal behavior to reduce the interference with normal traffic. The evaluation results reveal detection and mitigation time between 100 to 150 sec. The work also sheds light on the programming relevance with the open daylight controller over an abstracted view of the network infrastructure.
Ateş, Ç, Özdel, S., Anarim, E..  2020.  DDoS Detection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic. 2020 28th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1—4.

While internet technologies are developing day by day, threats against them are increasing at the same speed. One of the most serious and common types of attacks is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. The DDoS intrusion detection approach proposed in this study is based on fuzzy logic and entropy. The network is modeled as a graph and graphics-based features are used to distinguish attack traffic from non-attack traffic. Fuzzy clustering is applied based on these properties to indicate the tendency of IP addresses or port numbers to be in the same cluster. Based on this uncertainty, attack and non-attack traffic were modeled. The detection stage uses the fuzzy relevance function. This algorithm was tested on real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.

Al-madani, Ali Mansour, Gaikwad, Ashok T., Mahale, Vivek, Ahmed, Zeyad A.T..  2020.  Decentralized E-voting system based on Smart Contract by using Blockchain Technology. 2020 International Conference on Smart Innovations in Design, Environment, Management, Planning and Computing (ICSIDEMPC). :176—180.

Nowadays the use of the Internet is growing; E-voting system has been used by different countries because it reduces the cost and the time which used to consumed by using traditional voting. When the voter wants to access the E-voting system through the web application, there are requirements such as a web browser and a server. The voter uses the web browser to reach to a centralized database. The use of a centralized database for the voting system has some security issues such as Data modification through the third party in the network due to the use of the central database system as well as the result of the voting is not shown in real-time. However, this paper aims to provide an E-voting system with high security by using blockchain. Blockchain provides a decentralized model that makes the network Reliable, safe, flexible, and able to support real-time services.

Ghaffaripour, S., Miri, A..  2020.  A Decentralized, Privacy-preserving and Crowdsourcing-based Approach to Medical Research. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :4510—4515.
Access to data at large scales expedites the progress of research in medical fields. Nevertheless, accessibility to patients' data faces significant challenges on regulatory, organizational and technical levels. In light of this, we present a novel approach based on the crowdsourcing paradigm to solve this data scarcity problem. Utilizing the infrastructure that blockchain provides, our decentralized platform enables researchers to solicit contributions to their well-defined research study from a large crowd of volunteers. Furthermore, to overcome the challenge of breach of privacy and mutual trust, we employed the cryptographic primitive of Zero-knowledge Argument of Knowledge (zk-SNARK). This not only allows participants to make contributions without exposing their privacy-sensitive health data, but also provides a means for a distributed network of users to verify the validity of the contributions in an efficient manner. Finally, since without an incentive mechanism in place, the crowdsourcing platform would be rendered ineffective, we incorporated smart contracts to ensure a fair reciprocal exchange of data for reward between patients and researchers.
Kim, Young-Sae, Han, Jin-Hee, Kim, Geonwoo.  2020.  Design of an efficient image protection method based on QR code. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1448—1450.
This paper presents the design and the verification of an efficient image protection method based on the QR code, which is a type of two-dimensional barcode widely used in various fields. For this purpose, we design a new image protection system consisting of a secure image generator and a secure image recognizer. One adds a new pre-processing block to the typical QR code generator and the other combines the existing QR code reader with a new post-processing block. The new architecture provides image de-identification. It is also flexible, allowing the use of text-based compression and encryption. We have implemented prototype applications for verifying the functions of the secure image generator and those of the secure image recognizer. As a result, it is shown that the proposed architecture can be used as a good solution for image privacy protection, especially in offline environments.
Xiong, Xiaoping, Sun, Di, Hao, Shaolei, Lin, Guangyang, Li, Hang.  2020.  Detection of False Data Injection Attack Based on Improved Distortion Index Method. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1161—1168.
With the advancement of communication technology, the interoperability of the power grid operation has improved significantly, but due to its dependence on the communication system, it is extremely vulnerable to network attacks. Among them, the false data injection attack utilizes the loophole of bad data detection in the system and attacks the state estimation system, resulting in frequent occurrence of abnormal data in the system, which brings great harm to the power grid. In view of the fact that false data injection attacks are easy to avoid traditional bad data detection methods, this paper analyzes the different situations of false data injection attacks based on the characteristics of the power grid. Firstly, it proposes to apply the distortion index method to false data injection attack detection. Experiments prove that the detection results are good and can be complementary to traditional detection methods. Then, combined with the traditional normalized residual method, this paper proposes the improved distortion index method based on the distortion index, which is good at detecting abnormal data. The use of improved distortion index method to detect false data injection attacks can make up for the defect of the lack of universality of traditional detection methods, and meet the requirements of anomaly detection efficiency. Finally, based on the MATLAB power simulation test system, experimental simulation is carried out to verify the effectiveness and universality of the proposed method for false data injection attack detection.
Razaque, Abdul, Frej, Mohamed Ben Haj, Sabyrov, Dauren, Shaikhyn, Aidana, Amsaad, Fathi, Oun, Ahmed.  2020.  Detection of Phishing Websites using Machine Learning. 2020 IEEE Cloud Summit. :103—107.

Phishing sends malicious links or attachments through emails that can perform various functions, including capturing the victim's login credentials or account information. These emails harm the victims, cause money loss, and identity theft. In this paper, we contribute to solving the phishing problem by developing an extension for the Google Chrome web browser. In the development of this feature, we used JavaScript PL. To be able to identify and prevent the fishing attack, a combination of Blacklisting and semantic analysis methods was used. Furthermore, a database for phishing sites is generated, and the text, links, images, and other data on-site are analyzed for pattern recognition. Finally, our proposed solution was tested and compared to existing approaches. The results validate that our proposed method is capable of handling the phishing issue substantially.

Karelova, O.L., Golosov, P.E..  2020.  Digraph Modeling of Information Security Systems. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1–4.
When modeling information security systems (ISS), the vast majority of works offer various models of threats to the object of protection (threat trees, Petri nets, etc.). However, ISS is not only a mean to prevent threats or reduce damage from their implementation, but also other components - the qualifications of employees responsible for IS, the internal climate in the team, the company's position on the market, and many others. The article considers the cognitive model of the state of the information security system of an average organization. The model is a weighted oriented graph, its' vertices are standard elements of the organization's information security system. The most significant factors affecting the condition of information security of the organization are identified based on the model. Influencing these factors is providing the most effect if IS level.
Siledar, Seema, Tamane, Sharvari.  2020.  A distortion-free watermarking approach for verifying integrity of relational databases. 2020 International Conference on Smart Innovations in Design, Environment, Management, Planning and Computing (ICSIDEMPC). :192—195.
Due to high availability and easy accessibility of information, it has become quite difficult to assure security of data. Even though watermarking seems to be an effective solution to protect data, it is still challenging to be used with relational databases. Moreover, inserting a watermark in database may lead to distortion. As a result, the contents of database can no longer remain useful. Our proposed distortion-free watermarking approach ensures that integrity of database can be preserved by generating an image watermark from its contents. This image is registered with Certification Authority (CA) before the database is distributed for use. In case, the owner suspects any kind of tampering in the database, an image watermark is generated and compared with the registered image watermark. If both do not match, it can be concluded that the integrity of database has been compromised. Experiments are conducted on Forest Cover Type data set to localize tampering to the finest granularity. Results show that our approach can detect all types of attack with 100% accuracy.
Sabu, R., Yasuda, K., Kato, R., Kawaguchi, S., Iwata, H..  2020.  Does visual search by neck motion improve hemispatial neglect?: An experimental study using an immersive virtual reality system 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :262—267.

Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a higher cognitive dysfunction that can occur after a stroke. It is defined as an impairment in finding, reporting, reacting to, and directing stimuli opposite the damaged side of the brain. We have proposed a system to identify neglected regions in USN patients in three dimensions using three-dimensional virtual reality. The objectives of this study are twofold: first, to propose a system for numerically identifying the neglected regions using an object detection task in a virtual space, and second, to compare the neglected regions during object detection when the patient's neck is immobilized (‘fixed-neck’ condition) versus when the neck can be freely moved to search (‘free-neck’ condition). We performed the test using an immersive virtual reality system, once with the patient's neck fixed and once with the patient's neck free to move. Comparing the results of the study in two patients, we found that the neglected areas were similar in the fixed-neck condition. However, in the free-neck condition, one patient's neglect improved while the other patient’s neglect worsened. These results suggest that exploratory ability affects the symptoms of USN and is crucial for clinical evaluation of USN patients.

Ambareen, Javeria, M, Prabhakar, Ara, Tabassum.  2020.  Edge Data Security for RFID-Based Devices. 2020 International Conference on Smart Technologies in Computing, Electrical and Electronics (ICSTCEE). :272–277.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has become a preferred technology for monitoring in industrial internet of things (IIoT) applications like supply chain, medical industry, vehicle tracking and warehouse monitoring where information is required continually. Typical security threats seen in these applications are denial of service (DOS) attack, transmission attack etc. We propose a novel edge data security schema based on spike modulation along with backscatter communication technique to modulate both sensor and identification (ID) information. It is observed that this data encoding schema works well even in a multi-tag single-reader environment. Further, it uses lower power and offers a low-cost solution for Industrial IoT applications.
Kennard, M., Zhang, H., Akimoto, Y., Hirokawa, M., Suzuki, K..  2020.  Effects of Visual Biofeedback on Competition Performance Using an Immersive Mixed Reality System. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3793—3798.

This paper investigates the effects of real time visual biofeedback for improving sports performance using a large scale immersive mixed reality system in which users are able to play a simulated game of curling. The users slide custom curling stones across the floor onto a projected target whose size is dictated by the user’s stress-related physiological measure; heart rate (HR). The higher HR the player has, the smaller the target will be, and vice-versa. In the experiment participants were asked to compete in three different conditions: baseline, with and without the proposed biofeedback. The results show that when providing a visual representation of the player’s HR or "choking" in competition, it helped the player understand their condition and improve competition performance (P-value of 0.0391).

Kim, Hwajung, Yeom, Heon Young, Son, Yongseok.  2020.  An Efficient Database Backup and Recovery Scheme using Write-Ahead Logging. 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :405—413.
Many cloud services perform periodic database backup to keep the data safe from failures such as sudden system crashes. In the database system, two techniques are widely used for data backup and recovery: a physical backup and a logical backup. The physical backup uses raw data by copying the files in the database, whereas the logical backup extracts data from the database and dumps it into separated files as a sequence of query statements. Both techniques support a full backup strategy that contains data of the entire database and incremental backup strategy that contains changed data since a previous backup. However, both strategies require additional I/O operations to perform the backup and need a long time to restore a backup. In this paper, we propose an efficient backup and recovery scheme by exploiting write-ahead logging (WAL) in database systems. In the proposed scheme, for backup, we devise a backup system to use log data generated by the existing WAL to eliminate the additional I/O operations. To restore a backup, we utilize and optimize the existing crash recovery procedure of WAL to reduce recovery time. For example, we divide the recovery range and applying the backup data for each range independently via multiple threads. We implement our scheme in MySQL, a popular database management system. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides instant backup while reducing recovery time compared with the existing schemes.
Grusho, A., Nikolaev, A., Piskovski, V., Sentchilo, V., Timonina, E..  2020.  Endpoint Cloud Terminal as an Approach to Secure the Use of an Enterprise Private Cloud. 2020 International Scientific and Technical Conference Modern Computer Network Technologies (MoNeTeC). :1–4.
Practical activities usually require the ability to simultaneously work with internal, distributed information resources and access to the Internet. The need to solve this problem necessitates the use of appropriate administrative and technical methods to protect information. Such methods relate to the idea of domain isolation. This paper considers the principles of implementation and properties of an "Endpoint Cloud Terminal" that is general-purpose software tool with built-in security instruments. This apparatus solves the problem by combining an arbitrary number of isolated and independent workplaces on one hardware unit, a personal computer.
Ghaleb, Taher Ahmed, Aljasser, Khalid, AlTurki, Musab A..  2020.  Enhanced Visualization of Method Invocations by Extending Reverse-Engineered Sequence Diagrams. 2020 Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT). :49–60.
Software} maintainers employ reverse-engineered sequence diagrams to visually understand software behavior, especially when software documentation is absent or outdated. Much research has studied the adoption of reverse-engineered sequence diagrams to visualize program interactions. However, due to the forward-engineering nature of sequence diagrams, visualizing more complex programming scenarios can be challenging. In particular, sequence diagrams represent method invocations as unidirectional arrows. However, in practice, source code may contain compound method invocations that share values/objects implicitly. For example, method invocations can be nested, e.g., fun (foo ()), or chained, e.g., fun (). foo (). The standard notation of sequence diagrams does not have enough expressive power to precisely represent compound scenarios of method invocations. Understanding the flow of information between method invocations simplifies debugging, inspection, and exception handling operations for software maintainers. Despite the research invested to address the limitations of UML sequence diagrams, previous approaches fail to visualize compound scenarios of method invocations. In this paper, we propose sequence diagram extensions to enhance the visualization of (i) three widely used types of compound method invocations in practice (i.e., nested, chained, and recursive) and (ii) lifelines of objects returned from method invocations. We aim through our extensions to increase the level of abstraction and expressiveness of method invocation code. We develop a tool to reverse engineer compound method invocations and generate the corresponding extended sequence diagrams. We evaluate how our proposed extensions can improve the understandability of program interactions using a controlled experiment. We find that program interactions are significantly more comprehensible when visualized using our extensions.
Bhattacharya, M. P., Zavarsky, P., Butakov, S..  2020.  Enhancing the Security and Privacy of Self-Sovereign Identities on Hyperledger Indy Blockchain. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—7.
Self-sovereign identities provide user autonomy and immutability to individual identities and full control to their identity owners. The immutability and control are possible by implementing identities in a decentralized manner on blockchains that are specially designed for identity operations such as Hyperledger Indy. As with any type of identity, self-sovereign identities too deal with Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of the identity holders and comes with the usual risks of privacy and security. This study examined certain scenarios of personal data disclosure via credential exchanges between such identities and risks of man-in-the-middle attacks in the blockchain based identity system Hyperledger Indy. On the basis of the findings, the paper proposes the following enhancements: 1) A novel attribute sensitivity score model for self-sovereign identity agents to ascertain the sensitivity of attributes shared in credential exchanges 2) A method of mitigating man-in-the-middle attacks between peer self-sovereign identities and 3) A novel quantitative model for determining a credential issuer's reputation based on the number of issued credentials in a window period, which is then utilized to calculate an overall confidence level score for the issuer.