Poster Submissions

2014 NSF Early Career Professionals Workshop on Exploring New Frontiers in Cyber-Physical Systems - Poster Submissions

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2014 NSF Early Career Professionals Workshop on Exploring New Frontiers in Cyber-Physical Systems
Poster Submissions
First Name Last Name Email Poster Title Abstract
1 Dhananjay Anand Intrinsic adversary detection in Cyber-physical systems: Precise network synchronized clocks enable detection and isolation of adversial attacks Networks of the future are purportedly more vulnerable given their eventual evolution to large, amorphous, cyber-physical systems (CPSs). The focus of our research is to leverage a precisely synchronized network of clocks embedded within a CPS to design implicit security features, identify network intrusion, adversarial proxies and unauthorized reconfiguration.
Our premise is that while network topology, data content and size may change unpredictably in a CPS, the use of precise clocks to profile the physics of individual nodes and to accurately model the relative timing differences between nodes offers a unique structure-semantic oracle for node authentication and link validation.
2 Ramin Bighamian Personalized Closed-Loop Medication Therapeutic Systems in Medical CPS: An Ultimate Solution to Goal-Directed Therapy In today's clinical practice, medication dose is adjusted by human clinicians. Statistical results from 150 patients receiving vasopressors show that about 25% of MAP per hour is either too low or too high due to inefficient dose administration. Another complicating factor in dose adjustment is the substantial individual variability in the physiologic responses to medication therapy.
3 Ishanu Chattopadhyay Massively Distributed Computational Intelligence For A self-organizing Power Grid Renewable energy resources offer clean alternatives to fossil fuels. They produce little or no pollution or greenhouse gases, are widely available, and will never run out. A sustainable energy policy demands a substantial increase in the use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar farms, coupled with a massive increase in energy efficiency, supporting a transition towards a decarbonized economy. Long distance energy transmission, distributed power generation and smart grid systems could become key elements towards fulfilling this vision. However, such a massive deployment of renewable energy sources poses new technological and organizational challenges for the existing infrastructure. The traditional philosophy of meeting consumer demands via centralized allocation of power would not be effective in a large-scale distributed environment due to sheer number of decision variables, and uncertainties caused due to random fluctuations in generation and load. Furthermore, such a massively interconnected system forms a complex network whose dynamics is poorly understood by currently available analytical tools. We propose a new distributed decision algorithm that addresses these key concerns, giving us the ability to rapidly and autonomously respond to fluctuating load and demand via dynamic reconfiguration of network topology of the envisioned smart grid. Using only information that may be locally queried, and percolating such information via local communication alone, we show that it is possible to attain near-global optimality in performance; defined at the moment as minimizing transmission losses across the grid.
4 Dae-Hyun Choi A Framework for the Impact Analysis of Data Quality/Integrity/Privacy in Cyber-Physical Electric Energy System Managing and understanding the cyber-physical energy grid data is an increasing concern for Independent System Operators (ISOs), utilities, Load Serving Entities (LSEs) and market participants. As more and more cyber sensing devices such as smart meters (distribution level) and synchrophasors (transmission level) are deployed to the power system, it is prudent for future electric grid operators to understand the fundamental impact of multi-scale spatial data quality on resilient physical and market operations. In addition, data integrity is closely related to cybersecurity that may occur in the power industry. For instance, data manipulated by an intelligent adversary may result in misleading system operators and smart grid control systems, thus resulting in the severe malfunction of physical and financial grid operations. Furthermore, maintaining smart meter data privacy is essential to design a successful demand response program and a secure advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Built upon our preliminary success of the development of analytical platform for data analysis in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, we propose frameworks and algorithms to analyze and design robust cyber-physical electric energy systems with the presence of bad/malicious data.
5 Venanzio Cichella What If Robots Could Tango? The coexistence of robots and humans is the vision of the not so distant future of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). In the CPS of tomorrow machines and computers will be our co-workers. They will speak and understand natural language, engage all our senses (touch, smell, etc.), understand what we want from the context, and adapt to our emotions. In this perspective, it is our goal to design robots which are able to communicate continuously and bidirectionally with humans, feel their emotions, and perceive the surrounding environment. The robots of the new generation, equipped with a Cyber Behavioral Adaptation (CyBA) unit, must be able to take decisions (improvise and lead) based upon information received and perceived from the overall system, or comply with other's decisions (follow). We propose an interdisciplinary approach to multi-agent robust CPS with real-time CyBA, which can be used as a schema to conduct research at the intersection of human factors, psychology, computer science, and robotic systems. This research will close a key gap by developing intelligent cyber-robotic systems that can deal with concurrent human skills and emotions and address the explicit implementation of emotional behavior interfaces to ensure that robots adapt to humans' current internal states.
6 Velin Dimitrov A Shared Control Architecture for Human-in-the-Loop Robotics Applications
7 Alireza Dirafzoon Cyborg-Insect Networks for Mapping of Unknown Environments
8 Chinwendu Enyioha Optimal Resource Allocation to Control Spreading Processes in Arbitrary Networks
9 Omid Ghasemalizadeh Hybrid Could-Based Platform to Improve Ride Metrics of Vehicles As road disturbance is always an unknown, complex suspension control algorithms are required to reject the road disturbance. Consequently, more expensive processors and electronic sensors are needed for such application. The proposed hybrid cyber-physical platform improves ride metrics of vehicles by having an accessible database of road-profiles ready and frequently updated. This way, since the road disturbance is not an unknown data anymore, simple and fast algorithms with low computation work suffice. This auto-corrective cloud-based solution allows using cheaper equipment. Eventually, enhanced ride metrics are the outcome of the introduced cyber-physical platform.
10 Jianye Hao Alloy-based Game-theoretic Framework for Analyzing Security Issues in Small-scale Smart Grid Systems
11 Brian Johnson An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis of Intelligent Future Energy Systems The energy industry is currently undergoing a fundamental transformation in the way energy is generated, delivered, and consumed. Energy infrastructures constitute phenomena across large and small geographic regions - from transmission networks which stretch across continents to individual residential loads. Given the unprecedented scale and complexity of the challenges in cyber-physical energy systems, we anticipate that these problems cannot be addressed by ad-hoc industry developments. Accordingly, a coordinated and integrated investigation is needed which takes into account interactions across all relevant energy and cyber subsystems. Furthermore, in contrast to conventional approaches which tend to focus exclusively on modeling, a theory-to-demonstration methodology is advocated which recognizes the pivotal importance of cyber-physical test-beds in accelerating industry adoption. Towards that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has assembled a team with a diverse set of expertise, from communications to power electronics and power systems, and is currently developing an experimental platform to analyze, develop, and validate intelligent energy systems within NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF).
12 Seungkook Jun Cyber Physical System: Home-based Rehabilitation System for Knee Deficient Patients Our motivation is to develop home-based quantitative rehabilitation methods consists of low-cost measuring device, smart knee brace/exoskeleton and PC-based analysis/monitoring system. Clinic-based rehabilitation consists of expensive motion/force capture hardware/software which is not compatible with home-based system. Effective function of the knee brace/exoskeleton depends both on the designs as well as correct fitting. Unfortunately most of knee brace/exoskeleton design and fitting depend on designer/physiologist's intuition and experience. Hence, we examined quantitative methods to design exoskeleton and evaluated low-cost motion capture sensor, Kinect.
13 Ali Khanafer Efficient Information Spread Control in Cyber-Physical Systems In this work, we propose the design of efficient information spread control schemes for networked cyber-physical systems (CPS). Depending on the type of information, a network designer might be interested in accelerating or decelerating its spread over a network. In our recent work, we have considered two types of information spread control. We derived optimal defense and attack strategies for controlling information diffusion over a network of agents operating under linear dynamics. Further, we studied the problem of epidemics control in networks with low curing rates. In both papers, the controllers we designed were centralized and were assumed to know the network topology; to better cope with the surge in network sizes in CPS, our proposed research will revolve around the following main themes: i) exploring the fundamental limits of network controllability using a limited number of controllers, and ii) constructing distributed controllers that operate in the presence of failures and large uncertainties.
14 Junsung Kim Dependable Cyber-Physical Systems
15 Robin Kim Towards the Smart Railway: Interactive Wireless Smart Sensor Systems for Structural Health Monitoring of Railroad Bridges On April 16, 2009, the United States Government announced a new vision for the rail industry. This intercity plan called for expansion of railway networks, as well as upgrading of existing railways to support higher speed passenger trains. A hurdle for this plan is the fact that existing railway networks in the United States are quite old. Over 40% of privately owned railway tracks are built over 100 years (GAO, 2007). Bridges are a critical component of this network. As a result, development of monitoring strategies to ensure their structural integrity of railroad bridges has renewed urgency. Recent advances in low-cost wireless sensing and data acquisition technology have made it possible to instrument large civil infrastructure systems with dense arrays of wireless sensors. Compared to traditional structural health monitoring (SHM) using wired systems, wireless smart sensor (WSS) systems offer a number of attractive features: (i) cost-effective, (ii) ease of installation, (iii) highly decentralized data collection with computational capabilities (Rice et al., 2010). Yet, due to hardware and software limitations, only a limited number of full-scale deployments exist, and these focus mainly on highway bridges. Railroad bridges are different from highway bridges in that the bridge experiences more interactions between the train loads and the bridge structure, and the loads of train are much heavier and repetitive. The potential of WSS techniques to realize SHM systems suitable for railroad bridges needs can realized by a state-of-the-art cyber physical system (CPS).
A new vision for the railway system equipped with CPS, proposed in this research, aims to establish a sustainable system that yields highly user-friendly information from real-time interactions between the WSSs on the substructure and the sensor networks on the train.
16 Min Kyung Lee Designing Successful Human Collaboration with Cyber-Physical Systems
17 Kendra Lesser Computing Probabilistic Guarantees of Safety The scale and complexity of cyber-physical systems (CPS), as well as their prevalence in safety critical and expensive applications, dictates a need for formal safety verification of such systems. Stochastic reachability provides a theoretical framework for generating probabilistic guarantees of safety, but its applicability is currently limited due to a lack of feasible computation strategies. We outline some of our initial work in developing computational methods for stochastic reachability that are applicable to more realistic CPS. These methods include allowing for incomplete or noisy state observations when designing safety-maximizing controllers, and approximation strategies for systems defined in more than three dimensions.
18 Sarah Loos Formal Verification of Distributed Aircraft Controllers As airspace becomes ever more crowded, air traffic management must reduce both space and time between aircraft to increase throughput, making on-board collision avoidance systems ever more important. These safety-critical systems must be extremely reliable and work properly under every circumstance. In tough scenarios where a large number of aircraft must execute a collision avoidance maneuver, a human pilot under stress is not necessarily able to understand the complexity of the distributed system and may not take the right course, especially if actions must be taken quickly. We consider a class of distributed collision avoidance controllers designed to work even in environments with arbitrarily many aircraft. We prove the controllers never allow aircraft to get too close to one another, even when new planes approach an in-progress avoidance maneuver. Because these safety guarantees always hold, the aircraft are protected against unexpected emergent behavior which simulation and testing may miss.
19 Robert MacCurdy Data-driven Wildlife Ecology, Habitat Management and Environmental Sensing A Distributed Dynamic Biological Sensor Network (DDBSN) would utilize animals as mobile environmental sensing platforms by applying inexpensive long-lived wireless sensor nodes (tags) to them, and linking those nodes with data aggregation and analysis tools. The geographic coverage of a particular subset of tags could be prescribed by opportunistically selecting species with known spatial usage. The sensors that these animals carry will sample diverse environmental signals. The DDBSN will build on emerging embedded sensing modalities, like subcutaneous uric acid sensors, viral detection, and nanobiosensors, to allow rapid detection of environmental contaminants and viral outbreaks. Large-scale data of this type, coupled with environmental and geographic location information, could enable powerful epidemiological studies. Physiological sensors on these tags will also enable unprecedented study of animals in their environment.
20 Ann Majewicz Intuitive Human-in-the-Loop Control for Medical Cyber-Physical Systems Human-in-the-loop robotic systems should be intuitive and natural to use, especially in complex environments such as the operating room. However, what constitutes an intuitive teleoperation mapping is not always clear. For example, some nonholonomic systems (e.g. bicycles and cars) seem best controlled with joint space inputs, where the user controls the inputs to the system (i.e. steering angle and velocity) whereas other systems (e.g. steerable needles or wheelchairs) are not. An important research question arises regarding the most intuitive ways to control arbitrary dynamic systems and what key features (e.g. human and robot kinematic and dynamic properties, location of user inputs, etc.) determine optimal control strategies for the user. If these features could be identified for arbitrary dynamic systems, then it might be possible to formulate and solve an optimization problem to derive the best control policy for a human-robot interaction, thus promoting the design of a more intuitive and natural human-in-the-loop teleoperation strategy. This work could significantly improve a variety of human-in-the-loop cyber-physical systems with applications in surgery, rehabilitation, and personal transportation.
21 Charlie Matlack Human Behavior Monitoring for Improved Health and Resource Allocation PotaVida is developing a solar water purifier which measures cumulative solar UV exposure of a hydration bag and indicates when the water is disinfected. It also provides user feedback on whether the sun is bright enough for this process to occur. The embedded electronics can easily implement data-logging, and a short-range wireless link can upload data to a smartphone.

Uploaded data is geo-tagged and consolidated in a GIS database, where it is combined with program implementation data to drive (possibly automated) decision making processes based on usage outcomes.
22 Michael McEvoy Cyber-Physical Materials
23 Yousof Naderi Next Generation Cyber-Physical Systems Utilizing RF-Powered Computing
24 Ben Newton Efficient Management of a High-Capacity Airborne Network of Commercial Aircraft A high-capacity Airborne Network(AN) among thousands of commercial aircraft would enable a myriad of applications, but this network would require specialized protocols. The use of hybrid RF/FSO directional antennas requires that a protocol actively manage the physical topology of the network. In addition, a specialized routing protocol would limit the overhead required to route traffic in the dynamic network. Our protocols will utilize the flight plans of the aircraft to predict the future topology of the network. Preliminary results indicate that around 450 nodes could form a network which covers the continental United States.
25 Cameron Nowzari Event-triggered coordination of networked cyber-physical systems In this work we are interested in exploring how to design algorithms to control networked cyberphysical systems that are asynchronous, robust, and efficient. An important question that must be addressed to design efficient operation is how much information do different subsystems really need to complete a given task? Periodic implementations essentially ignore this question by simply giving agents as much information as possible which is a generally inefficient use of sensors, actuators,and/or wireless communication. By using event-triggered coordination, we give agents in a network a sufficient level of autonomy such that they can decide for themselves when information should be shared or control signals should be updated. Distributed event-triggered coordination is appealing
not only in the sense that it allows for naturally asynchronous executions, but it also aligns the need for information and control with a prespecified goal. More specifically, we consider the well-known multi-agent consensus problem. There are many different algorithms that achieve the desired consensus state, but a vast majority of them assume continuous or periodic and synchronous updates of information and control signals. There are also many recent papers that apply event-triggered control to this problem; however, event-triggered control alone still requires the continuous or periodic availability of information to check the triggering condition. In these setups, agents only update their control signalwhen the error between their neighboring agents' current states have changed since the last control update by some predefined threshold. While this is a good first step in that control signals are not updated continuously, the availability of continuous or periodic communication is still unrealisticwhen considering networked cyber-physical systems that must acquire this information through digital sensing and/or wireless communication. Thus we are interested in applying the event-triggered idea not only to control, but to communication as well.
26 Marzieh Parandehgheibi Robustness of Interdependent Cyber-Physical Networks
27 Mohammad Rasouli Electricity Markets with Strategic Agents Possessing Asymmetric Information New cyber-physical systems are emerging which are governed by specific physical laws, strategic decision makers and asymmetric information among the decision makers. Restructured electricity industry is one example of these new cyber-physical systems. A methodology for study of these systems is proposed based on control theory, theory of incentives and mechanism design. Electricity energy markets and generation expansion markets are the focus of research. The results have implications in other CPS with strategic agents and asymmetric information.
28 Laura Rozo Adapting Fault Resilience Granularity to Overcome Varying Failure rates in CPS More processing nodes in CPS systems, due to increasing demand of more complex functionality and higher performance; together with strict system requirements, such as severe energy and performance constraints; as well as mission critical applications, demand CPS systems to be able to tolerate a diverse range of fault rates in an efficient way. Current fault tolerant techniques in this field, are either specialized to particular applications and cannot be employed in areas that do not necessarily share exactly the same characteristics,or targeting specific faults and cannot cover faults due to malfunction processors or environmental effects. In comparison, we propose an adaptive fault tolerant scheme that is independent of the type of applications and the type of faults. Our scheme efficiently overcome the reliability challenge through adapting fault detection and recovery granularity based on the available resources and fault rate conditions of the system. This way, the performance and power overhead imposed by fault tolerance can be minimized.
29 Indranil Saha Compositional Synthesis of Multi-Robot Motion Plans via SMT Solvin
30 Kurt Schab Physical-layer improvements for adaptive communications Expectations for faster data rates and denser mobile networks are driving the need for adaptable and flexible communication protocols. The concept of "cognitive radio" embodies the goals of such an intelligent communication network. A true cognitive radio network is one which can sense its environment, adapt its communication strategy, and most efficiently use resources. Recent advances in software-defined radio have brought these goals closer to reality by allowing a simple receiver to operate over many bands and modulation schemes. However, the interface of a software-defined radio to the physical world is still its antenna. In this work we discuss the performance properties set by a radio's antenna and how advancing antenna technologies can further improve adaptive communications systems. In particular we examine the utility of reconfigurable antennas which can provide improved functionality to channel capacity, localization, and other secondary communication tasks, enabling adaptive radios to achieve the promises of cognitive radio.
31 Jun Seo Cyber-Physical Systems for Material Handling Material handling is relevant to a wide range of applications including manufacturing, disaster response, space exploration, and assisted living. Our vision is to realize automated material handling with guaranteed safety and reliability in a wide range of operating conditions. We propose to begin with two fundamental problems: autonomous robotic grasping and autonomous robotic assembly. The poster illustrates our achievements on the problems and addresses how our approach can facilitate the design of involved cyber-physical systems.
32 Meenupriya Swaminathan Galvanic Coupled Cyber-Physical Body Sensor Networks Wearable and implanted wireless sensors promise the next generation of health-care by in-situ testing of abnormal physiological conditions, personalized medicine and proactive drug delivery to ensure continued well being. However, these sensors must communicate with other body sensors for collaborative functionality and with an external control for diagnostics. This raises questions on how to ensure energy efficient data delivery through the body tissues. Traditional forms of high power radio frequency (RF) based wireless communication find limited use in such scenarios owing the limited penetration of RF signals through human tissue, and the need for frequent battery replacements. Instead, we propose a radically different form of wireless communication that involves galvanic coupling very low energy electrical signals, resulting in two orders of energy savings. In this scarcely explored paradigm, there are several interesting challenges that must be overcome including (i) modeling the body propagation channel, (ii) identifying the best placements of implants and auxiliary data forwarding nodes, and (iii) devising scientific methods to characterize reliable channel with improved capacity for information transfer. To model the human tissue propagating characteristics, we developed a theoretical suite using two-port equivalent circuit and validated through extensive simulations using finite element method. Using these models, we estimated the channel gain, identified the optimal transmission frequency, and obtained estimates for achievable data rates, for varying electrode placements. Further research on optimizing network topology and transceiver design along with development of suitable physical and higher layer protocols would make galvanic coupling an attractive technology for future body sensor networks.
33 Shahyar Taheri Cloud-Integrated Infrastructure for Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (ACPN) The automotive systems have evolved from purely mechanical to electromechanical, and, more recently, to software controlled platforms. These systems share the same planar transportation infrastructure, and, consequently, can be considered as a distributed network. For achieving the higher safety and efficiency within this network, new transportation systems can take advantage of the control algorithms and informational services within the vehicle (V) and the surrounding infrastructure (I), in addition to the interactions between vehicles (V2V) and between vehicle and infrastructure (V2I). As a V2I service, cloud computational resources can be used to virtually represent the automotive systems for monitoring, actuating, and navigation purposes in an efficient and reliable manner. By adding this new dimension, vehicles will become service-based mobile cyber-physical platforms that can be informative about their surroundings, and can be optimally controlled via the available models and data-bases in the cloud service.
34 Steve Vozar Modeling Humans in the Teleoperated Robot System Loop Teleoperation is the default mode of control for robotic tasks requiring human judgment and decision-making skills. Models of human operators can be used in combination with models of the rest of the robot system to simulate a teleoperation scenario. However, such models of human behavior often are not available. It therefore is desirable to develop a library of models describing how humans interact with robots in the context of teleoperation. Such research could enable robot designers to take a more holistic approach to developing teleoperated robots by indicating how design choices impact the overall system performance.
35 Hsueh-Cheng Wang Environmental Text Spotting for the Blind using a Body-worn CPS
36 Yang Weng Graphical Model for Cyber-Physical Systems - Generalization from Electric Grids A fundamental question in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is how to integrate the cyber intelligence and physical systems with increasing uncertainties into one single model and conduct efficient algorithm. This poster proposes for the first time a probabilistic graphical model for both layers. Thanks to its simple reliance over measurement noise (with physical model) and local message passing (with cyber information), the proposed single layer modeling method can be generalized to integrate CPS designs in different domains (such as Water, Gas, Sewage networks, that virtually define modern life) under a unifying framework, key to the next era of CPS designs. Preliminary simulations over Smart Grid demonstrate that the distributed estimation process performs much better than the traditional deterministic approach in terms of accuracy and computational time.
37 Patrick Wensing Cyber-Physical Systems: Exploiting Morphological Diversity for Multi-Agent Intelligence In the next 10-15 years, semi-autonomous robotic systems are poised to play an ever-increasing role to replace human counterparts as first responders and to provide assistance in the home. This poster proposes a number of cyber-physical systems challenges, whose solution could accelerate the impact of these systems with methods that exploit morphological diversity in multi-agent teams of robots.
38 Sean Whitsitt Automatic Verification of Dynamic Constraints in LTI Control Systems Through Model Transformations Using modeling tools it is possible to construct Domain Specific Modeling Languages (DSMLs) for cyber-physical systems. In developing these languages a metamodeler can specify structural constraints that prevent modelers from constructing invalid systems. However, these structural constraints do not prevent modelers from constructing systems that do not meet design requirements such as preventing roll-overs in autonomous ground vehicles or collisions between unmanned aerial vehicles. These requirements are referred to as dynamic constraints. In control systems dynamic constraints can be considered any requirement on the system that necessitates mathematical analysis (in second order systems: percent overshoot, rise time, settling time, etc.). The research proposed herein will lay the foundation for the process of incorporating dynamic constraints into the construction of DSMLs by exploring the process as applied to dynamic constraints in linear time-invariant (LTI) control systems.
39 Lawson Wong Uncertainty and Estimation in Cyber-Physical Systems: Model Mismatch, Attention, Refinement, and Learning
40 Cathy Wu Convex optimization for traffic estimation Good traffic demand estimates for urban transportation networks will enable a more effective use of traffic infrastructure (throughput, energy, reliability, robustness). In this work, we propose to develop a convex optimization approach to large-scale under-determined state estimation problems, and we apply this approach to the problem of estimating route-level traffic flow (demand) in and urban setting. We exploit pervasiveness of mobile network data, in particular when fused with existing loop detector and GPS trace data.
41 Xiang Yin Synthesis of Decentralized Supervisors for Cyber-Physical Systems
42 Sze Zheng Yong Safety Hybrid Control with Intention Inference for Semi-autonomous Cyber-Physical Transportation Systems
43 Hyungchul Yoon iRescue: Emergency Response System using Smartphones and Smart Sensors Recent disasters such the 2008 Cyclone Nargis(130,000 deaths), the 2010 Haiti earthquake (316,000 deaths) and the 2011 Japan earthquake (15,861 deaths) have shown the tremendous devastation that cam reek on society. When victims are trapped in a building due to these disasters, emergency responses must act quickly to save lives, because the more quickly emergency response personnel can locate and identify the status of victims, the more effective life-saving efforts can be. Current emergency response systems are mostly depending on first responders' intuition to search for victims. However, in complex buildings or in situation where the first responders' sight is not clear, it is very difficult to find survived victims trapped inside the building. Moreover, some parts of the building might be damaged and dangerous to pass through. Therefore, a system that can estimate the location and the status of the victim and provide the safe evacuation route based on those information is needed. In the scale of a city, most people will try to escape from the disaster site by vehicle. However, because of the damage buildings, bridges and roadssome of the routes might be blocked and consequentially result a traffic congestion. Therefore, the demand for system that can analyze the infrastructure of the disaster site, and optimize the evacuation route is considerable. In this poster, a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) called iRescue(Illinoi Rescue System) will be proposed that could enhance the emergency response system in both the building scale and the city scale
44 Jiaxing Zhang The Next Generation Transportation Infrastructure Performance Inspection: A CPS approach
45 Feng Zhou User behavior modeling for smart cyber-physical services through vehicular social networks